Monday, August 1, 2016


AD 1351
King Magnus of Norway appointed
Paul Knutson to captain a rescue mission, which 
would row beyond Greenland to recover the Christians that abandoned Greenland.  Magnus gave Knudson full authority to choose his crews.

Excerpt in Gl. kgl. coll. 2432,4to in the Royal Library, København.-
Transcript of this excerpt in Langebeks Diplomatarium the Danish National Archives, København.Trykt in Greenland History Mindesmærker III p. 121-122.
No: 83.
Date: "3 November 1354."1 Location: Bjørgvin.
No one turned back
from here to there.
 went off yonder

What do the curved lines on the top of the circle represent?

What do the two mounds and lines from each mound to the circle represent?

This pictograph may identify the episode where Paul Knudson and his rescue crews found the LENAPE people and offered to rescue them.  

If so, what does the stanza say about the  LANAPE answer?

Most, but not all, 
survived a boat wreck
on the rocks.

What does the triangle with a line near the top represent?

What does the circle with curved lines below the line represent?

Do we have any evidence of the “wreck on the rocks?”

IF we DO have the evidence of the boat wreck in about AD 1352, why are school kids taught that Columbus, who sailed the ocean blue in 1492—a century and a half later—was the first person from the east side of the Atlantic to discover America?



  1. Firstly, the place where the boating accident occurred is called “Beardmont.” (Beardmo means “broken Norse” in Old Norse. ( Myron Paine, ( Secondly, the corroded hilt of s shield, together with the remains of an axe were found at the bottom of the waterfall there. (The early settlers did not use shields, they had guns). Secondly,
    When Ivar Bardarsson returned from the western settlement with news it had been abandoned: “ the Skraeling have [destroyed] the whole of the Western Settlement. There are only horses, goats, cattle, and sheep all wild, but no inhabitants, neither Christian nor Heathen,” considering King Magnus’s command, this command would now become a question of considerable weight and importance. Even though Magnus may not have had jurisdiction in this matter, (his son, King Hakon was now the king), he still had rank and privilege, commanding: “Know this for truth, that whoever defies this our command shall meet with our serious displeasure and receive our full punishment.” Now Knutsson May have had to “think on his feet” and interpret Magnus’s orders so as to preserve his good relations with the former king. Note that Magnus gave Knutsson permission to select the pick of his personal bodyguard). That he did finally choose to follow Magnus’s orders is suggested by the fact that he did join Nicholas of Lynne on his ship to America. That the Gemma Frisius map of 1537 shows the Nelson River (and only one other river), this suggests that Lynne and Knutsson sailed up that river together. Now it gets interesting. If Bardarsson was on the same ship, he would have had to cross Lake Winnipeg and row up the Red River to Moorehead. However, the map shows the Nelson River but not Lake Winnipeg. Now if we consider Myron’s interpretation of the Maalan Aruum, it’s tells of the Lenape travelled up the Nelson River and a boating accident occurred involving Knutsson where people perished, just after the expedition left the Nelson River. It also says “No one turned back.”
    This may be an explanation for the Frisius map showing only the Nelson River. As Bardarsson had to go on across Lake Winnipeg and up the Red River to Moorehead, in order to collect his tithes, this suggests that Knutsson did not go with him. As Lynne was the cartographer, it suggests that he stayed with Knutsson and possibly, the Leni Lenape expedition that accompanied them. (We must remember that the Lenape were now heretics, so Lynne, Bardarsson and Knutsson, may have been sworn to secrecy regarding the Lenape’s existence. Considering that Knutsson’s crew did not return with him to Norway, most probably joining with the Lenape, he may have shown loyalty to his shipmates by keeping the secret for the rest of his days.

  2. The Gemma Frisius globe of 1537 shows Hudson Bay and the Nelson River, seventy years before Henry Hudson was born.

  3. Aidon and I have different understandings of Paul Knutson’s death.
    Basically, I think Paul died on a failed attempt to use a short cut out of James Bay. Bardarsson never left Greenland until he boarded Lynne’s boat to return to Norway. Lynne appears to have left the Lenape in James Bay, while Paul was trying to use a short cut to Minnesota.
    When “No one turned back” Paul apparently decided to help the Lenape migrate to Minnesota. He apparently chose to move through the swampy land to the south west of James Bay until his crew found the waterway that turned into a fast moving stream near Beardmore on the east side of Lake Nipigon. As the water velocity increased, clearance above the rocks decreased.
    The boat hit a rock.
    Paul, as captain, would have been in front of the boat. He was pitched overboard. His sword, axe, and fire steel would have weighed him down. The broken sword implies extreme pressure from the rapid flowing water, when the sword lodged against the rocks and Paul’s body was jammed against the sword.
    So from Beardmore the people, who were on the survey voyage, returned to James Bay with bad news, “The short cut is too dangerous, just as the locals say it is.”
    Professor Lynne had taken another boat to survey the magnetic pole. He may have chosen to leave, while most of the Lenape were still in James Bay. Ivar Bardarsson may have boarded Lynne’s boat on the way home. So both Lynne and Bardarsson may not have known the story of the migration after the boat wreck.
    We should not think they knew of the Nelson River or Lake Winnepeg.
    A puzzle is why the stories of Lynne and Badarsson did not mention the Lenape left behind in America?
    Bardarsson’s story implies the end of the Lenape history in Greenland.
    English agents may have removed a statement about the Lenape in America. English agents could tolerate Lenape in Greenland, because most historians of Europe knew they were there.
    But if a statement about the Lenape in James bay was removed then who would know?
    Censoring of Bardarsson’s and Lynne’s stories to remove statements about America would be consistent with the English suppression by omission tatics.